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Enzyme for Autism - Frequently Asked Questions
 
How does Peptizyde help individuals within the autism spectrum?

Many autism experts and parents have observed that individuals within the autism spectrum improve in their behavior when foods containing gluten or casein proteins (commonly found in wheat and dairy products) are removed from their diet. It is believed by some experts in autism that during digestion, many autistic children break apart casein and gluten proteins in an untypical way that results in the creation of exorphin peptides. These exorphin peptides act as opiates, binding to opiate receptors sites in the gut and brain, interfering with the creation of proper neurological connections in the brain, and ultimately leading to autistic behaviors such as stimming, aggression, and lack of socialization.

Peptizyde prevents the untypical breaking apart of casein/gluten peptides so that these harmful exorphins are not produced. Peptizyde includes protease enzymes having different ways of cutting the casein/gluten proteins, preventing the production of exorphins. The action of these enzymes is like using several pairs of scissors to cut a single ribbon; the ribbon gets cut faster and in different places, so different (smaller) lengths of ribbon are produced. In addition, Peptidyzde adds a peptidase enzyme, DPP IV, which specifically destroys casomorphin, an exorphin typically derived from milk products. DPP IV is one of only two enzymes that can break apart Casomorphin molecules, which are otherwise highly resistant to being broken apart. DPP IV not only eliminates exorphins from dietary intake, but also eliminates exorphin-like molecules which may be produced in the intestines by overgrowths of bacteria, yeast and other pathogens.
 
Peptizyde
 
Peptizyde is a combination of proteolytic enzymes cultured from specialized forms of aspergillous, a type of mold.  They are refined to the point where the mold is completely removed from the enzymes - not even a trace amount of aspergillous remains. Each enzyme has a unique set of peptide bonds it prefers to break, so the combination of these enzymes allows much more efficient means of quickly and thoroughly breaking down (hydrolyzing) proteins to its smaller components. The enzymes in Peptizyde work only on food proteins, not carbohydrates, fats, or other compounds, and do not interfere with medications or other supplements (unless they are also proteins, which is extremely unlikely). Peptizyde may be used in combination with other enzyme products.

The aminopeptidase enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, or DPP IV, is able to hydrolyze and inactivate the exorphin peptide, casomorphin and is present in both Peptizyde and AFP Peptizyde. However, for maximal protein breakdown, DPP IV is not useful alone, and should be combined with other proteases with different and less stringent peptide bond specificity. For this reason, AFP Peptizyde contains two other fungal proteases with high activity in acid conditions. These enzymes are present in AFP Peptizyde™ in high amounts for the purpose of quickly hydrolyzing proteins while the food is still in the stomach. The ability of AFP Peptizyde enzymes to withstand the low pH of the stomach and remain active under acidic conditions allows hydrolysis of casein and gluten prior to entrance into the small intestine. Casein and gluten, in the presence of pancreatic enzymes in the duodenum, can produce exorphin peptides that may be readily absorbed from the intestine (these peptides are not absorbed from the stomach). AFP Peptizyde supplements the "normal" hydrolysis of casein, gluten, and other food proteins such that the exorphin peptides are not produced because the specific cleavage pattern to produce these peptides is altered.

Peptizyde is different from other enzyme products in that it contains only those enzymes needed for protein hydrolysis. No other enzymes have been added. This allows parents to customize enzyme supplementation to the specific needs of their child. Another advantage to this approach is that less potential exists for intolerance reactions due to additional and perhaps unnecessary enzyme proteins. Also, by using only three enzyme blends in Peptizyde™, larger amounts of each enzyme can be added per capsule, insuring that more hydrolysis of food protein can take place in the short time that food is in the stomach.pain.

The aminopeptidase enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV, or DPP IV, is able to hydrolyze and inactivate the exorphin peptide, casomorphin and is present in both Peptizyde and AFP Peptizyde. However, for maximal protein breakdown, DPP IV is not useful alone, and should be combined with other proteases with different and less stringent peptide bond specificity. For this reason, AFP Peptizyde contains two other fungal proteases with high activity in acid conditions. These enzymes are present in AFP Peptizyde™ in high amounts for the purpose of quickly hydrolyzing proteins while the food is still in the stomach. The ability of AFP Peptizyde enzymes to withstand the low pH of the stomach and remain active under acidic conditions allows hydrolysis of casein and gluten prior to entrance into the small intestine. Casein and gluten, in the presence of pancreatic enzymes in the duodenum, can produce exorphin peptides that may be readily absorbed from the intestine (these peptides are not absorbed from the stomach). AFP Peptizyde supplements the "normal" hydrolysis of casein, gluten, and other food proteins such that the exorphin peptides are not produced because the specific cleavage pattern to produce these peptides is altered.

Appetite may increase as well as showing more interest in other types of foods. Other supplements, especially vitamin and minerals, may be decreased in amount or frequency of dosing as more nutrition is derived from diet with enzymes.  Peptizyde is recommended for high protein diets and athletic training; and dosing may be increased for those meals that are higher in meat protein. We have also had several reports from customers that Peptizyde and Zyme Prime when used together eliminates symptom of arthritis and seasonal allergeries when taken on an empty stomach between meals.

Using Peptizyde as an Alternative or Supplement to the GFCF Diet
 
Autism Coach does not condone abandoning the GFCF (Gluten Free Casein Free) Diet but the manufacturer offers the following recommendations for those who wish to try doing so.  The procedure recommended by most who have successfully abandoned the GFCF diet using Peptizyde is to use the enzymes while maintaining the diet for a period of at least 2 months. When challenging with foods known to be a problem, use small portions initially with 1 or 2 capsules of Peptizyde™. The intention is to provide more than enough Peptizyde™ to counter the effects of casein/gluten. If the challenge was successful, increasing the amount of food given may be attempted, keeping in mind that more Peptizyde™ may be necessary to counter the increased size of the food challenge. For occasional use, more capsules may be given for infractions, any more than 4 or 5 capsules will probably not provide any additional benefit.

How do Zyme Prime and ZyCarb help individuals within in the autism spectrum?

HN-Zyme Prime and SCD Zyme Prime and ZyCarb all break down the components of foods that Peptizyde does not, including fats, carbohydrates, and starches.  One of the reasons children within the autism spectrum tend to have overgrowth of pathogenic organisms, bacteria, and yeast is because they do not completely digest their food and this partially digested food provides a breeding ground.  When foods are completely broken down and nutrients absorbed, there is not nearly as much for pathogens to feed upon.  The Specific Carbohydrate Diet, which has been successfully used by many individuals within the autism spectrum, is based upon this theory.

HN-Zyme Prime

HN-Zyme Prime is a broad-spectrum enzyme blend of 12 enzymes that breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It excels for carbohydrate digestion.  It contains papain and bromelian for proteins, lactase for dairy  lactorse, and amylase and other carbohydrases for better starch digestion.  There is some enzyme activity present in Zyme Prime appears to oxidize or modify phenols found in fruits and vegetables as well. Recognizing that some people would want to use just one product, some protein digeseting enzymes are included but in lower amounts than Peptizyde enzymes.  It is close to being a multi-enzyme. 
 
HN-Zyme Prime contains CereCalase, a proprietary enzyme blend of hemicellulase, beta-glucanase, and phytase, to help solubilize plant fiber and reduce phytic acid. Phytic acid can bind up important minerals and proteins, thus reducing their availability to be used by the body.  Galactosidase is useful in breaking down hard-to-digest carbohydrates found in legumes, and helps reduce gas produced from their fermentation in the intestine. Amylase and glucoamylase are used together to hydrolyze starchy compounds into simple sugars.  Lipase is present to hydrolyze triglycerides to short-chain fatty acids.

These enzymes are derived from plant-based sources. HN-Zyme Prime is an excellent companion supplement to Peptizyde. The combination of both products provides digestive help for all the basic food groups: proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

HN-Zyme Prime is helpful in easing the gas production, bloating, and cramping from such dietary problems as lactose and fatty food intolerance. Parents report digestive improvements such as firmer and more formed stools. Some improvement in tolerating phenolic foods was noted. HN-Zyme Prime was observed to often increase weight gain in children who were under-sized, possibly through increasing bioavailability of food nutrients.

A significant number of autistic children have difficulty with phenols which are commonly found in fruits such as apples, oranges and berries. Using Zyme Prime ensures that your child is able to digest and use all of the nutrients in the food he or she eats , especially important if your child is a light eater and/or underweight. Zyme Prime and Peptizyde were designed to complement each other, and most parents find that they see greater improvements in their child when using both enzymes simultaneously.
 
SCD Zyme Prime
 
SCD Zyme Prime is a modified form of HN-Zyme Prime that is compliant with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet.  Bromelain and papin were removed to enhance tolerability fo the latex-sensitive.  One of the two fungal-derived proteases was kept in the formula to help with proteins present in starches. Extra lactase and alpha-galactosidase were added since there was now more room in the capsule. We also used a cellulose filler with Zyme Prime, whereas we used rice bran in our previous formulas. 
 
SCD Zyme Prime is a combination of 9 enzyme blends in high concentration. These enzymes are effective in enhancing the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, triglyceride fats, starches, and proteins. While not as potent in protein hydrolysis as Peptizyde, Zyme Prime excels at carbohydrate hydrolysis. This results in less bloating and gas production, as well as helping certain food problems such as lactose intolerance.

SCD Zyme Prime is helpful in easing the gas production, bloating, and cramping from such dietary problems as lactose and fatty food intolerance. Parents report digestive improvements such as firmer and more formed stools. Some improvement in tolerating phenolic foods was noted. Zyme Prime was observed to often increase weight gain in children who were under-sized, possibly through increasing bioavailability of food nutrients.

ZyCarb

ZyCarb is a specialized formulation for help with digestion of starches, carbohydrates and sugars. The enzymes present are balanced to provide digestive relief without the overly-firming effects on stools sometimes observed with Zyme Prime.

ZyCarb will help with lactose intolerance, gas, and bloating. One protease enzyme in the formula provides help with those starchy foods containing some protein, as well as helping break down glycoproteins. Amylase enzyme is lower (compared to Zyme Prime) which will help reduce the firming of stools.

Phenols, or polyphenolic compounds, are found in all plants. Some people have reactions to these compounds (red cheeks or ears, rashes, shiners under eyes). Xylanase is an enzyme that breaks down xylans, compounds found in plant cell walls, and appears to allow the ingestion of phenolic fruits and vegetables without the aforementioned reactions; and was the basis of our No-Fenol product. The enzyme also helps stools from becoming too hard, and so counters the effect seen with other enzyme products. ZyCarb contains the xylanase equivalent of 1/2 capsule of No-Fenol. This unique combination of enzymes should provide excellent digestion of carbohydrates and sugars, but without the stool-hardening effect seen with other carbohydrase products.

Galactosidase is useful in breaking down hard-to-digest carbohydrates found in legumes, and helps reduce gas produced from their fermentation in the intestine.

Amylase and glucoamylase are used together to hydrolyze starchy compounds into simple sugars.

Lipase is present to hydrolyze triglycerides to short-chain fatty acids.

All enzymes are derived from plant-based sources.

ZyCarb is helpful in easing the gas production, bloating, and cramping from such dietary problems as lactose and fatty food intolerance.

How does No-Fenol help individuals within the autism spectrum?
 
All plants contain some degree of phenolic compounds. The phenol structure itself is ubiquitous in nature, and is actually essential to many of life’s processes. Current thinking by many is that some subset of children on the PDD spectrum have difficulty in the processing of phenolic compounds, which may present as behavioral problems and physical symptoms such as red ears and cheeks, and dark circles under the eyes. While the basic mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well defined, it is thought that perhaps the phenolic compounds become "trapped" in some part of a metabolic cycle, presumably involved with various detoxification pathways.

The research literature indicates that some phenolic compounds are modified by the addition of carbohydrate groups to their structures, which may inhibit their crossing into cells and being metabolized. The current hypothesis for why No-Fenol may help is through the ability of the enzymes in this product to remove the carbohydrate groups from the phenols, thus allowing normal processing by the detoxification pathways. There is no evidence that No-Fenol directly modifies phenolic structures. Indeed, the success of No-Fenol in allowing the addition of phenolic foods back into the diet of children with PDD may result in a re-evaluation of the basis of the phenol "problem".

Xylanase is the major component of No-Fenol, and is an enzyme used to breakdown the structural components of plant cell walls, which are primarily very complex carbohydrates. Xylanase is used in the juice industry to extract more juice from fruit pulp fibers. At least one reference indicates that polyphenolic compounds are actually increased by treatment with xylanase. Based on this reference and the fact that No-Fenol has allowed "phenol-sensitive" individuals to ingest phenolic foods, HNI now believes that the phenol issue is much more complex than previously thought, and may not be due so much to the presence of phenols as to the specific structure of these phenols.

Parental feedback indicates that No-Fenol allows many to eat some amount of phenolic foods without adverse effects on behavior or physical symptoms. A wide variation existed as to amounts and types of these foods that could be consumed. Parents report of improvements were strikingly similar to those noted with Peptizyde™, i.e., increased verbalization, more awareness, and more social behavior toward family members and peers. Those children with chronic constipation reported more frequent bowel movements. Some parents also reported that children could better tolerate food colorings and certain over the counter medications, such as cold medications and analgesic agents.
 
Trienza Information

TriEnza combines the AFP-Peptizyde, Zyme Prime, and No-Fenol into one convenient, economical product that is less expensive than buying these enzymes separately.

Two (2) capsules, four (4) chewable tablets, or 1/4 teaspoon of the powder of TriEnza contain:

  • all the protease enzymes for protein digestion from Peptizyde
  • all the enzymes (except cellulase) from  Zyme Prime
  • 1/2 the enzymes from No-Fenol(xylanase) to break down foods high in phenols (such as tomatoes, grapes, apples)
  • now available in capsules, chewable tablets, and powder forms
In addition, no fillers are added. *1 mg of MCT oil is added per 600 mg as an excipient to minimize the enzyme powder from becoming airborne. MCT oil is derived from coconut oil. Cellulase enzyme was not added to this product so you don't have to worry about using TriEnza with timed-release medications. No more splitting capsules to get "half doses".
 
No more splitting capsules to get "half doses". One capsule (one-half dose) makes starting enzymes easier.
 
What about dose and list of ingredients?

Please go to the main enzyme product page and click on the Instructions tab to view the recommended dosages for each enzyme and the Ingredients tab to view the ingredients for all of the enzymes.

When is the best time for giving the enzymes?

It is best to give your child the enzymes with the first few bites of the meal or just prior to mealtime (10 -15 minutes). But even if your child does not take the enzyme at the beginning of the meal, it is still important point to take the enzyme during or after eating. Because food stays in the stomach for up to 90 minutes, introducing enzymes anytime during the meal will still provide great benefits.

If you are using the enzymes for anti-inflammatory purposes such as arthritis or seasonal allergies, take the enzymes on an empty stomach 1 hour between meals.

My child won't swallow capsules. Can I sprinkle the enzymes on his or her food?

Our chewable enzymes are a tasty option but are the most expensive per dose.  The most economical are the capsules which may be opened up and sprinkled on food or the Trienza powder, which is the most ecnomical way to get Peptizyde, Zyme Prime and No-Fenol in a single enzyme blend.  The enzymes will mix with food or beverages, although they may tend to clump. They can have a "grassy" taste, which can be easily masked with fruit juice, ketchup, etc. Please be careful to not inhale the enzyme powder, and to clear any residual enzyme powder from the mouth and throat area with additional food or beverage.  

Tricks used for by parents for taste sensitive children include the following.  Some parents have melted dark chocolate and when it has almost cooled (the enzymes will be destroyed in high temperatures) have mixed the enzymes into the chocolate - the parents then break the cooled chocolate into wafers to give their children.  They can also be mixed into dairy free products such as Rice Dream pudding, applesauce - or even frozen with fruit juice in an ice cube tray and sucked on as a fruit juice ice cube.   Do not mix the enzymes into foods containing dairy or wheat as the enzymes will liquify these foods.

Please note that the enzymes should not be heated - high temperatures destroy their enzymatic activity.  They can be mixed into cool or room temperature foods.  

How can I give the enzymes with my child's school lunch?

Often you can work with the school to arrange supplementation.  If not, you may try mixing the enzymes into a cold drink in a thermos and adding ice cubes to keep it cold as long as the drink does not ingredients the enzymes are intended to digest. The cooler (even frozen) you keep an enzyme, the longer it lasts. This is important because enzymes become activated, and then start losing their activity once put into a liquid solution.

What should I expect when my child takes these enyzmes?

The reactions are variable. If your child is not on the Gluten Free / Casein Free (GFCF) diet, the use of enzymes can cause an "opiate withdrawal" effect, similar to heroin addicts going "cold turkey". The child may actually appear to be worse, and is due to the decreased peptides in his or her system. Symptoms may appear as hyperactivity, being more sensitive to pain and stimulus, aggression, and sleep disturbances. In addition, digestive changes may be noticed, such as increased frequency of bowel movements (not diarrhea), less stool being passed, and a possible increase in gas production. These symptoms should be temporary and should resolve in a matter of days. As always, if you have concerns, seek the advice of your child’s physician.  

If your child is not on the GFCF diet or is experiencing these symptoms, you may wish to introduce the enzymes gradually, starting with one capsule at the same time each day and gradually increasing the dosage over the period of a week or two until the child can tolerate having the enzymes three times a day with meals.

Once your child is acclimated to the enzymes, if the enzymes are are helping your child, you should see increased eye contact, less "mental fog", and improvements in ability and behavior. Typically, if the enzymes are benefiting the child, you will see these improvements within 1-3 weeks. 

One factor that might interfere with effectiveness includes feeding the child more gluten and casein foods or other foods as soon as they start the enzymes.  We recommend waiting 1-3 weeks to determine if the enzymes are helping before attempting to add more (if any) gluten and casein foods to the diet.  We recommend following the GFCF diet, although some parents have reported that their children do better if they are allowed to have some gluten and casein containing foods, along with the enzymes.

Side Effects/Contra-Indications/Allergies

These enzymes been developed to be as non-allergenic as possible.  Also, please note that if your child has a severe allergic response to milk or gluten, such as in Celiac disease, these enzymes will not resolve the allergy —your child should still not ingest highly allergenic foods.

These enzymes are cultured from a special form of Aspergillous, which is a type of mold used to create non-fruit and non-animal enzymes by the supplement industry.  If your child has a mold sensitivity, they most likely will not have an allergic reaction to the enzymes, as the enzymes are so completely distilled that virtually any traces of Aspergillous are removed.  However, individuals with a life threatening, anaphylatic reaction to mold or other fungal proteins should NOT take fungal-derived enzymes.  If you have concerns, consult your medical doctor for further advice, and err on the side of caution.
 
It is possible, that for a few individuals, after using the enzymes for a number of years on a daily basis, a sensitivity can develop, which manifests as itching.  In my customer feedback over the last six years, there are two cases where this has been reported out of the thousands of customers who have purchased the enzymes from Autism Coach.  If you wish to take the precaution of preventing a sensitivity from developing, we recommend rotating these enzymes with another non-aspergillous derived digestive aid one or two days a week or having a day or two enzyme free.  Possible substitutes include the Digest Zyme we carry or Betaine Hydrocholoride. These substitutes do not completely digest  gluten and casein but help to keep overall digestion optimal on days when not taking  Peptizyde and Zyme Prime.  We also recommend to avoid ingesting gluten and casein containing foods and drinks on the days when Peptizyde and Zyme Prime are not taken.  

Side effects for  No-Fenol reported in the initial trial of the enzyme, were hyperactivity, more frequent urination, and increased sweating. In most cases, these effects resolved over time or with adjustment of enzyme dose or decreased use of other supplements. Some parents noted a correlation between these effects and increased yeast "die-off", which can produce similar side effects. In some cases, stools were softer and less formed, which may be a result of the enzymes decreasing the viscosity of the intestinal contents, as noted in animal studies.

 These products are not intended to treat, cure, or prevent any disease.