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Zinc-Carnosine Research

Zinc-Carnosine has been used in Japan as a pharmaceutical product since 1994. The form of Zinc-Carnosine used in Liquid Carnosine Plus has dozens or research studies and more than 12 years of human experience.

Zinc-Carnosine supports the mucosal lining of the stomach and GI tract. This mucosal lining is the body’s natural defense against the strong stomach acid. Current medical practice is to prescribe acid blocking drugs to relieve symptoms. This has several negative consequences. It does not fix the problem. Drugs will provide relief but you are no closer to a solution for the problem. Many others who regularly use pain medicine such as aspirin, ibuprofen or prescription pain relievers have stomach irritation as a common side effect.

Zinc-Carnosine helps to support the natural mucosal lining. It can provide wonderful relief for occasional heartburn, acid indigestion, gas and nausea. A healthy mucosal lining can inhibit harmful bacteria associated with stomach irritation. Zinc-Carnosine has potent tissue healing properties. If you have stomach issues related to irritation or ulcers, you should try Zinc-Carnosine. I don’t know of anything else like it, that has these unique properties.

One study showed that heartburn was improved by 85% in only 14 days and was gone completely in over 60% of the participants.

Zinc-Carnosine a novel patented crystalline chelate compound consisting of L-carnosine (N-β-alanyl-L-histidine) and zinc was first synthesized in 1983 aiming at combining the two physiologically important substances in one entirely new molecule.[1] This special chelated form of the mineral zinc has a unique ability to exert its effects directly on the cells of the stomach lining. When zinc is complexed to L-carnosine, it dissociates in the stomach at a slower rate. This prolonged existence allows it to maintain its gastric healing effect over a longer period of time. [2]. The dipeptide L-carnosine is found mainly in the muscles of vertebrate and zinc is an essential trace element which plays an important role in the body, for example at the active centers of over 300 enzymes [3].

Both L-carnosine and zinc have common pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, membrane stabilizing, immunomodulating, and tissue repairing effects, and their anti-ulcerogenic effects in animals have also been investigated independently [4][5].

After extensive pharmacological studies Zinc-Carnosine was found to have a unique anti-ulcer property with both cytoprotective and tissue repairing actions in acute and chronic ulcers. Various action mechanisms such as anti-oxidant[6], membrane stabilizing[7], prostaglandin-independent cytoprotective[8], wound healing[9] and anti-Helicobacter pylori[10] activities have been proposed for the anti-ulcer effect.

The most featured character of Zinc-Carnosine is that it adheres specifically to the ulcer legions and remains there for a long time[11], suggesting that this property plays a key role to heal ulcer. Various toxicological studies[12], on the other hand, proved that this compound has enough safety to undergo clinical evaluation.

Clinical studies for gastric ulcer patients. In the controlled double blind study, Zinc-Carnosine, in an 8-week treatment showed significantly better effect than those of cetraxate hydrochloride, with little side effect[13].

In addition to the anti-ulcer effect ,Zinc-Carnosine also has various potential of new clinical application to osteoporosis[14], taste and smell disorders[15], hepatitis[16], pancreatitis[17], muscular dystrophy[18], ulcerative colitis[19], wound[20], stomatitis[21], and so on, as evidenced by various pharmacological studies with this compound. Also much attention has been growing on Zinc-Carnosine as a dietary supplement or a health food to improve marginal zinc deficiency or even to prevent aging, because Zinc-Carnosine has a extraordinarily high oral bioavailability in terms of zinc[22] and the component L-carnosine recently appeared to have strong anti-glycation effect[23]. Glycation is a process in which proteins react with sugars under active oxygens to form inflexible crosslinked proteins, and has been implicated as strong contributors to many progressive diseases of aging.

Zinc-Carnosine helps relieve occasional discomfort. Clinical Trials In a randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled double blind study, 299 patients suffering with symptoms of gastric discomfort were randomly allocated to receive either a Zinc-Carnosine or a placebo, or a control drug or its placebo for 8 weeks. Improvement ratings for a range of symptoms were taken at various points during the trial and compared with before treatment data. Of the 258 people who completed the trial, 136 were in the Zinc-Carnosine group. Of the group, 92% of the participants were rated as “moderately improved” or better on an improvement scale across the category of symptoms including heartburn, tenderness, epigastric pain, diarrhea and constipation after 8 weeks. [13]

In another study, 28 patients with gastric discomfort were given Zinc-Carnosine and monitored for 8 weeks. Improvement was rated on a scale of subjective and objective symptoms. After 4 weeks, the rate of those cases that were considered to be “significantly improved” was 68.4%. After eight weeks, the “significantly improved” number was 68.8%. Over 60% of these patients remained in the “significantly improved” category well after discontinuation of the treatment, suggesting a lasting effect of the Zinc-Carnosine beyond the time it is taken.[24]

Maintains a Healthy GI Environment The mineral zinc in Zinc-Carnosine is a critical component to a number of physiological processes in our bodies. Some of these functions include growth and metabolism of cells, healing of wounds, and maintenance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[2]

Zinc-Carnosine may also be able to favorably maintain the bacterial balance of the stomach and GI tract. Studies suggest that the Zinc-Carnosine may have effects on certain strains of harmful bacteria and, therefore, may be able to help maintain a GI environment that is favorable to health.[25] By supporting the bacterial balance in the stomach, Zinc-Carnosine can help maintain a healthy mucosal lining.

Supports the Health of Gastric Cells Zinc-Carnosine has been studied for its ability to prevent free radical damage to gastric cells. The authors concluded that the zinc compound directly protected gastric mucosal cells from oxidant stress and alcohol induced damage.[26]

Additional research further confirms the gastro-protective effects of Zinc-Carnosine. The authors concluded that the zinc compound exerted a beneficial protective effect against monochloramine-induced stomach lesions.[27]

Zinc-Carnosine has also been shown to slow the development of aspirin induced stomach damage in rats. These results may suggest a role for Zinc-Carnosine in protecting gastric cells by occasionally reducing the levels of certain cytokines in minor inflammation of the stomach.[28]

1] Matsukura, T; Takahashi, T; Nishimura, Y; Ohtani, T; Sawada, M; Shibata, K: Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1990), 38(11), 3140-6.
[2] Matsukura, T.; Tanaka, H: Biochemistry (Moscow) (2000), 65(7), 817-823.
[3] Walsh, CT; Sandstead, HH; Prasad, AS; Newberne, PM; Fraker, PJ: Environ. Health Perspect (1994), 102 Suppl 2, 5-46.
[4] Yamakawa, A: Showa Igakkai Zasshi. (1975), 35(2), 113-126.
[5] Cho, CH: Drug Dev. Res. (1989), 17(3), 185-197.
[6] Yoshikawa, T; Naito, Y; Tanigawa, T; Yoneta, T; Kondo, M: Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991), 1115(1), 15-22.
[7] Cho, CH; Luk, CT; Ogle, CW: Life Sci. (1991), 49(23), PL189-PL194.
[8] Arakawa, T; Satoh, H; Nakamura, A; Nebiki, H; Fukuda, T; Sakuma, H; Nakamura, H; Ishikawa, M; Seiki, M; Kobayashi, K: Dig. Dis. Sci. (1990), 35(5), 559-66.
[9] Seiki, M; Aida, H; Ueki, S; Yoneta, T; Takemasa, T; Hori, Y; Morita, H; Chaki, K; Tagashira, E: Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi (1992), 100(2), 165-72.
[10] Sunairi, M; Tanaka, N; Kuwayama, H; Nakajima, M: Yakuri to Chiryo (1994), 22(9), 3771-3775.
[11] Seiki, M; Aida, H; Mera, Y; Arai, K; Toyama, S; Furuta, S; Morita, H; Hori, Y; Yoneta, T; Tagashira, E: Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi (1992), 99(4), 255-63.
[12] Matsuda, K; Mera, Y; Wada, H; Aruga, H; Saik, Y; Taniguchi, Y: Arzneim. Forsch. (1991), 41(10), 1036-1041.
[13] Miyoshi A, et al. Clinical evaluation of Z-103 on gastric ulcer - a multicenter double-blind comparative study with cetraxate hydrochloride. Jpn PharmTher 1992;20(1):199-223.
[14] Sugiyama T; Tanaka H; Kawai S: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism (2000), 18(6), 335-338.
[15] Ikui, A; Ikeda M; Yoshikawa T; Kudo I; Onoda K; Kida A: Jibiinkou (1999), 92(7), 801-804.
[16] Takagi, H; Nagamine, T; Abe, T; Takayama, H; Sato, K; Otsuka, T; Kakizaki, S; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, T; Kojima, A; Takezawa, J: Suzuki K; Sato S; Mori M. Journal of Viral Hepatitis (2001)        8(5) 367-71.
[17] Takeda, S; Yoshikawa, T; Morita, Y; Yoshida, N; Kondo, M: J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. (1999), 26(3), 213-225.
[18] Tameyasu, T; Yamada, M; Tanaka, M; Takahashi, S: Japanese Journal of Physiology (2002), 52, 111-120.
[19] Yoshikawa, T; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, N; Yamamoto, H; Kitazumi, S; Takahashi, S; Naito, Y; Kondo, M: Digestion (1997), 58(5), 464-468.
[20] Watanabe, S; Wang, XE; Yoneta, T; Seto, K; Sato, N: Gastroenterology (1997), 112, 327A.
[21] Katayama, S; Nishizawa, K; Hirano, M; Yamamura, S; Momose, Y: J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. (2000), 3(1), 114-117.
[22] Nishimura, Y; Yamagishi, Y; Ando, K; Saito, T; Matsukura, T: Biomed. Res. Trace Elem. (2001), 12(2), 159-167.
[23] Boldyrev, AA; Gallant, SC; Suhkich, GT: Biosci. Rep. (1999), 19 (6), 581-7.
[24] Misawa T, et al. Clinical study of Z-103 - clinical effects on gastric ulcer and influence on endocrine function. Jpn PharmTher 1992; 20(1):245-254.
[25] Kuwayama H, et al. Polaprezinc. Nippon Rinsho 2002 Feb; 60 Suppl 2:717-720.
[26] Hiraishi H, et al. Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro. Aliment Pharmacl Ther 1999;13:261-269.
[27] Kato S, Nishiwaki H, et al. Mucosal ulcerogenic action of monochloramine in rat stomachs: effects of polaprezinc and sucralfate. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42(10):2156-2163.
[28] Naito Y, et al. Effects of polaprezinc on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil accumulation, and TNF-alpha expression in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury.
       Dig Dis Sci 2001;46(4):845-851.

*The above information is from publicly available literatures and have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.